Sindh has the 2nd highest Human Development Index out of all of Pakistan's provinces. The 1998 Census of Pakistan indicated a population of 30.4 million. Just under half of the population are urban dwellers, mainly found in Karachi, Hyderabad, Sukkur, Mirpurkhas, Nawabshah District, Umerkot and Larkana. Sindhi is the sole official language of Sindh since the 19th century. A significant number of Hindu Sindhis can be also found in India, they emigrated to Republic of India following religious violence during independence.